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Photon Sources for Lithography and Metrology
Editor(s): Vivek Bakshi
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Book Description

Photon sources enable the extension of lithography and metrology technologies for continued scaling of circuit elements and therefore are the key drivers for the extension of Moore’s law. This comprehensive, 28-chapter volume is the authoritative reference on photon source technology and includes contributions from leading researchers and suppliers in the photon source field. It is intended to meet the needs of both practitioners of the technology and readers seeking a thorough introduction to EUV photon sources and their applications.

Topics include a state-of-the-art overview and in-depth explanation of photon source requirements, fundamental atomic data and theoretical models of EUV sources based on discharge-produced plasmas (DPPs) and laser-produced plasmas (LPPs), a description of prominent DPP and LPP designs, and other technologies for producing EUV radiation at 13.5 nm. Additionally, this volume contains detailed descriptions of 193-nm excimer lasers, UV lamps, and laser-driven plasma sources for UV photons, all of which power many current lithography and metrology tools. CO2 lasers and 1-µm Nd-YAG lasers, used for pre-pulse in Sn LPP EUV sources, are also covered.

Alternative photon sources for 13.5-nm lithography and metrology, such as high-harmonic generation (HHG) and synchrotrons, along with their usage as a metrology tool, are discussed; and potential future photon sources such as free-electron lasers (FELs), solid-state 2-µm thulium lasers, and 1-µm Nd-YAG lasers are described. Additional topics include EUV source metrology, plasma diagnostics of EUV plasmas, grazing and normal incidence collector optics for plasma sources, debris mitigation, and mechanisms of component erosion in EUV sources.

Book Details

Date Published: 25 September 2023
Pages: 1302
ISBN: 9781510653719
Volume: PM351

Table of Contents
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

1 Photon Source Technology for Lithography and Metrology: An Overview
Vivek Bakshi
1.1 Introduction
1.2 EUV Sources: LPP
1.3 EUV Sources: DPP
1.4 Description of Photons in Sn and Xe Sources
1.5 Other Photon Sources
1.6 EUV Extension and Blue-X
1.7 Summary and Future Outlook

2 Laser-Produced Plasma Sources for Short-Wavelength Applications Including Lithography and Microscopy
Gerry O’Sullivan, Padraig Dunne, Takeshi Higashiguchi, Takanori Miyazaki, Fergal O'Reilly, and Emma Sokell
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Plasma Considerations
2.3 Conversion Efficiency in Sn UTAs
2.4 Spectroscopic Observations
2.5 Shorter-Wavelength Sources
2.6 Imaging in the Water Window
2.7 Conclusion and Future Perspectives

3 Radiation-Hydrodynamics Modeling of LPP EUV Sources
Howard Scott, Steven Langer, and Yechiel Frank
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Plasma Properties
3.3 Laser Absorption
3.4 Thermal Transport
3.5 Hydrodynamics
3.6 Atomic Physics
3.7 Radiation Transport
3.8 Radiation-Hydrodynamics Codes
3.9 Examples
3.10 3.10 Future Trends

4 Atomic Origins of EUV Light
John Sheil, James Colgan, and Oscar Versolato
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Atomic Structure Calculations: Completeness and Accuracy
4.3 Maxwell–Boltzmann Statistics in Non-LTE Plasma
4.4 Optical Depth in Laser-Produced Tin-Microdroplet Plasma
4.5 Conclusions

5 Radiation-Dominated Plasma in LPP Sources: Physical Aspects and Challenges for Numerical Modeling
Mikhail M. Basko
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Main Characteristics and Capabilities of the RALEF-2D Code
5.3 Code Validation by Comparison with Experiments
5.4 Theory of Radiation-Dominated Laser Ablation Fronts
5.5 On the Maximum CE by Steady Ablation of Tin Droplets
5.6 Integrated Simulations of Dual-Pulse Droplet-to-Disk Targets
5.7 Concluding Remarks

6 EUV Sources for High-Volume Manufacturing
Igor Fomenkov, David C. Brandt, Alexander I. Ershov, Alexander A. Schafgans, Yezheng Tao, Georgiy O. Vaschenko, and Bruno La Fontaine
6.1 Introduction to EUV Light Sources
6.2 EUV Source Requirements
6.3 Laser-Produced Plasma Source System
6.4 Summary

7 EUV Light Source for Lithography
Hakaru Mizoguchi, Shinji Nagai, Takashi Suganuma, Georg Soumagne, Hiroaki Nakarai, Yoshifumi Ueno, Takashi Saitou, and Tatsuya Yanagida
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Key Technologies of EUV LLP Light Sources
7.3 Gigaphoton’s Engineering Test Stand EUV Light Source
7.4 High-Power HVM LPP-EUV Light Source Development
7.5 Conclusion

8 The Electrodeless Z-Pinch Metrology Source
Stephen Horne, Deborah Gustafson, Matthew J. Partlow, Wolfram Neff, Michael Roderick, and Kosuke Saito
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Operating Principles
8.3 Diagnostics for the EQ-10
8.4 Source Performance: Power and Brightness
8.5 Source Performance: Spatial and Temporal Stability
8.6 Operation as a Water Window Microscope Illuminator
8.7 Spectral Measurements
8.8 6.7 nm: Neon Operation
8.9 Conclusion

9 High-Brightness Laser-Assisted Discharge-Produced Plasma EUV Source for Mask Inspection and Exposure Applications
Yusuke Teramoto
9.1 Introduction
9.2 LDP Source System Configuration and Its Features
9.3 Dynamics of Discharge-Produced Plasma
9.4 EUV Output Characteristics
9.5 Source Stability and Reliability
9.6 Source Cleanliness
9.7 Comparison with DPP and LPP Sources

10 Compact EUV Sources for Metrology and Irradiation Experiments
Klaus Bergmann, Jochen Vieker, Alexander von Wezyk, and Florian Melsheimer
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Discharge-based EUV Source
10.3 Source-Collector Module
10.4 Summary

11 The EUV Lamp: A Discharge-Produced Metrology EUV Source
Rainer Lebert, Christoph Phiesel, Thomas Missalla, and Andreas Biermanns-Föth
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Basic Concept and Physics of the EUV-Lamp
11.3 Typical Results Obtained with EUV-Lamp Operation
11.4 Examples of EUV-Lamp Used in EUVL Metrology Systems
11.5 Summary

12 Laser-Driven Plasma Source Technology and Applications
Huiling Zhu, Toru Fujinami, Xiaohua Ye, Don McDaniel, and Deborah Gustafson
12.1 Introduction: The Benefits of EUV Imaging
12.2 Principles and Characteristics
12.3 Key Features of Laser-Driven Plasma Sources
12.4 Nanometrology Applications
12.5 Applications Outside Metrology Applications
12.6 Challenges and Future Developments

13 EUV Source Metrology
Muharrem Bayraktar, Fei Liu, Oscar Versolato, and Fred Bijkerk
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Absolutely Calibrated In-band Energy Measurements
13.3 Broadband Spectroscopy with a Transmission Grating Spectrometer
13.4 Conclusion and Outlook

14 Collector Optics for EUV Sources
Sascha Migura, Tobias Müller, and Frank Hartung
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Design Concepts
14.3 Far Field
14.4 Wavelength Spectrum and Reflectivity
14.5 Mechanics
14.6 Manufacturing
14.7 Thermal and Contamination Management
14.8 Summary

15A Grazing Incidence Optics and Applications
Ladislav Pína
15A.1 Introduction
15A.2 Grazing-Incidence X-ray Optics (GIXO) Introduction
15A.3 Rotationally Symmetric GIXO (Parabolic, Ellipsoidal and Wolter Mirrors) as Related to EUV and Soft X-ray Sources
15A.4 Lobster-Eye (LE) and Multi-foil Optics (MFO)
15A.5 Conclusions and Outlook

15B Materials Processing with Focused EUV/Soft-X-ray Pulses
Kazuyuki Sakaue
15B.1 Focusing Properties of EUV Pulses by Grazing-Incidence Optics
15B.2 Micro-/Nano-materials Processing with High-Order Harmonics
15B.3 Materials Processing with Energy-Tunable Free-Electron Lasers
15B.4 Conclusions and Outlook

15C Irreversible Changes in Materials Exposed to Intense EUV Radiation
Libor Juha
15C.1 Introduction
15C.2 Mechanisms of Irreversible Changes Induced by Intense EUV Radiation
15C.3 Permanent Radiation Damage to EUV Optics
15C.4 Using the Changes for EUV Radiometry
15C.5 Direct Materials Processing by Intense EUV Radiation
15C.6 Conclusions and Outlook

15D Interaction of Intense EUV Pulses with Atomic and Molecular Gases
Andrzej Bartnik
15D.1 Introduction
15D.2 Laser-Produced Plasma EUV and SXR Sources Based on Gaseous Targets
15D.3 Formation of Intense EUV/SXR Beams Using Grazing Incidence Mirrors
15D.4 Low-Temperature Plasmas Driven by Intense EUV Pulses
15D.5 Numerical Simulation of Emission Spectra
15D.6 Application of EUV-Induced Plasmas for Material Treatment
15D.7 Summary

16 Plasma Diagnostics
Kentaro Tomita
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Target Diagnostics Using the Shadowgraph Technique
16.3 Electron Diagnostics
16.4 Ion Diagnostics
16.5 Summary

17 Synchrotron-based Metrology Tools for EUV Lithography
Charles Tarrio, Robert E. Vest, Frank Scholze, Michael Kolbe, and Yasin Ekinci
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Storage Rings for Metrology Applications
17.3 Optics and Detectors for EUVL
17.4 Synchrotron-Radiation Metrology for EUV Source Applications
17.5 Calibration of Tools for EUV Source Radiometry On Site

18 Tin Mitigation in EUV Sources
Gianluca Panici and David N. Ruzic
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Multi-layer Mirror Overview
18.3 Debris Mitigation
18.4 In Situ Tin Cleaning
18.5 MLM Exposure to Hydrogen Plasma
18.6 Summary

19 Compact, Efficient CO2 Amplifiers with Modular Design for High-Efficiency EUV Power Generation
Koji Yasui, Junichi Nishimae, Tatsuya Yamamoto, and Yuzuru Tadokoro
19.1 Background of EUV Applications for the United States
19.2 Concepts of CO2 Lasers for EUV Generation
19.3 Scalability for > 500-W EUV Powers
19.4 Modular Consideration for a Variety of EUV Applications
19.5 Summary

20 Excimer Lasers for Lithography
Hakaru Mizoguchi, Osamu Wakabayashi, Toshihiro Oga, Hiroaki Nakarai, Hiroshi Komori, Kouji Kakizaki, and Junichi Fujimoto
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Excimer-Laser-based Technology for Lithography Applications
20.3 Progress of DUV Lithography
20.4 Summary

21 Coherent EUV Light Sources based on High-Order Harmonic Generation Sources—Principles and Applications in Nanotechnology
Henry Kapteyn, Margaret M. Murnane, Yuka Esashi, Michael Tanksalvala, Joshua L. Knobloch, Chen-Ting Liao, Daniel D. Hickstein, Clayton Bargsten, Kevin Dorney, and John Petersen
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Practical Implementation of HHG
21.3 HGG for Generating Coherent 13.5-nm EUV Light
21.4 Nanotechnology Applications
21.5 Summary and Conclusions

22 YAG Lasers for Lithography and Metrology
Martin Smrž, Jiří Mužik, and Siva Sankar Nagisetty
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Applications of High-Power Ultrashort-Pulse Lasers in EUV and X-ray Generation
22.3 Fundamental Properties of Laser Gain Media
22.4 Active Materials for Laser Pulse Generation
22.5 Laser Pulse Generation and Amplification
22.6 Geometry of Laser Gain Media for High-Power Lasers
22.7 High-Power Thin-Disk Lasers and Amplifiers
22.8 Kilowatt-Class Pre-pulse Picosecond Yb:YAG Laser System: PERLA®
22.9 Prospective Developments of Sub-kilowatt Mid-infrared Sub-picosecond Lasers
22.10 Summary

23 Solid State 2-μm Laser Drivers for EUV Lithography
Brendan A. Reagan, Thomas Galvin, Issa Tamer, Emily Sistrunk, Thomas Spinka, and Craig W. Siders
23.1 Introduction
23.2 High-Average-Power Pulsed-Solid-State Laser Technology
23.3 Current State-of-the-Art Solid State λ = 2 μm Laser Systems
23.4 Big-Aperture Thulium Laser Concept
23.5 BAT Laser Driver for EUV Lithography
23.6 Summary and Outlook

24 Accelerators and Compact Storage Rings for Lithography and Metrology
Yasin Ekinci, Terence Garvey, Andreas Streun, and Leonid Rivkin
24.1 Introduction
24.2 A Brief History of Synchrotrons and Storage Rings
24.3 Physics of Synchrotron Radiation
24.4 Basic Feature of Modern Storage Rings
24.5 Compact Storage Rings for Lithography and Metrology
24.6 Conclusions and Future Developments

25 High-Power Light Source for EUV Lithography Based on the Energy-Recovery Linac Free-Electron Laser
Hiroshi Kawata, Ryukou Kato, Hiroshi Sakai, Norio Nakamura, and Ryoichi Hajima
25.1 Introduction
25.2 Concept of the ERL-FEL
25.3 Design and Performance of the ERL-FEL
25.4 Design Concept of the Optics from and EUV-FEL to an EUV Scanner
25.5 Efforts to Apply to Industry
25.6 Beyond EUV: Blue-X
25.7 Summary and Outlook

26 UV Lamps for Lithography
Hisakazu Ieuji
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Principles, Structure, and Characteristics
26.3 Future Trends

Appendix A: Atomic Xenon Data
John D. Gillaspy
A1.1 Introduction
A1.2 Specification of the Subtypes of Fundamental Atomic Data Needed
A1.3 Overview and Current Status of Available Data for Xenon (q = 7 to q = 18)
A1.4 References to Data for the Less-Critical Charge States (q < 7 or q > 18) of Xenon
A1.5 Benchmarking Input Data
A1.6 Benchmarking Output Data
References (for main text)
Appendix A: International SEMATECH's Fundamental Data Working Group
Appendix B: Xenon Atomic Data
References (for Appendices A and B)

Appendix B: Atomic Tin Data
I. Yu. Tolstikhina, S. S. Churilov, A. N. Ryabtsev, and K. N. Koshelev
A2.1 Introduction
A2.2 Theoretical Approach
A2.3 Results of the Calculations
A2.4 Registration of Sn Plasma Spectra
A2.5 Primary Classification on Charge States
A2.6 Conclusion
Appendix: Results of Theoretical Calculation of Sn Ion Spectra


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